- representativeness heuristics
- 定義：when assessing a particular patient, clinicians often weight the similarity of that patient’s symptoms, signs, and risk factors against those of their mental representations of the diagnostic hypotheses being considered.
- availability heuristics
- 定義：involves judgements based of how easily prior similar cases or outcomes can be brought to mind
- anchoring heuristics (conservatism or stickiness).
- 定義： involved estimating a probability of disease and then insufficiently adjusting that probability up or down when interpreting new data about the patient
- simplicity heuristic
- 定義：use the simplest explanation possible that will accout adequately for the patient’s symptoms or findings
除了套用簡單的認知模型來解釋系統一在臨床上演繹的種類，認知科學家發現臨床醫師在面對複雜問題時，會採用分析推演的方式(Analytic reasoning processess)，或者稱作Hypothetico-dedutive model，藉由不斷假設，然後推翻，經過一連串所謂的"Diagnostic imperatives"，是常使用的策略來面對那些不常發生的診斷或是確立最終問題根源的方式(所以常會在SOAP中看到需要rule out 什麼，這便是一種所謂的Hypothetico-dedutive model)。
Elaborate conceptual networks of memorized information or models of disease to aid in arriving at their conclusions. expertise involves an increased ability to connects symptoms, sign, and risk factors to one another in meaningful ways, relate those findings to possible diagnoses, and identify the additional information necessary to confirm the diagnosis.
increased attention is now being paid to understand how best to adjust group-level clinical evidence of treatment harms and benefits to account for the absolute level of risks faced by subgroups and even individual patients, using validated clinical risk scores.