Color can add dimensionality and richness to scientific communications. In figures, color is typically used to differentiate information into classes. The challenge is picking colors that are discriminable. A systematic approach to choosing colors can help us find a lineup effective for color coding.
這篇論文Quintana, E., Shackleton, M., Sabel, M. S., Fullen, D. R., Johnson, T. M., & Morrison, S. J. Efficient tumour formation by single human melanoma cells.Nature 456, 593–598 (2008). 便是在談論這個現象。其藉由調整原本用來篩栓用的免疫缺乏老鼠模型由non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID) 老鼠改成 NOD/SCID interleukin-2 receptor gamma chain null (Il2rg-/-) 老鼠，原本大概只有0.1%病人癌症組織可以因此發展出癌組織，到27%病人癌組織的癌細胞都經由單一癌細胞便能發展成癌症組織。
These findings highlight the fact that malignant cells have perturbed gene expression program that might affect the normal stability or the developmental control of the expression of certain cell surface markers particularly when the cells are put in vitro.
上面這篇論文Gupta, Piyush B., Fillmore, Christine M., Jiang, G., Shapira, Sagi D., Tao, K., Kuperwasser, C., & Lander, Eric S. (2011). Stochastic State Transitions Give Rise to Phenotypic Equilibrium in Populations of Cancer Cells. Cell, 146(4), 633-644. 頗有趣，使用馬可夫模型嘗試去解構癌症幹細胞這樣的狀態，是否可以用數學模型去解釋。
Ｍalignant cell populations are organized as unidirectional cellular hierarchies in which CSCs constitute biologically unique subsets of cells, which are distinguished from the bulk of the cells that they produce by their exclusive ability to perpetuate the growth of a malignant cell population indefinitely
Interestingly, it has also become apparent that even stringently defined normal tissue stem cells with extensive self-renewal properties can be intrinsically heterogeneous with regard to their differentiation and self-renewal control in different sites or stages of development .
Thus, heterogeneity among CSCs in a single tumour type, or even within a single tumour, cannot be assumed to be indicative of an abnormal (tumour-specific) process or to be a consequence of a DNA mutation.
Cells that can initiate the sustained production of neoplastic populations when cultured in supportive conditions; can include pre-malignant and malignant neoplastic cells, usally measured by LDA
腫瘤球狀細胞(Neoplastic sphere-forming cells)
Cells that can initiate the production of non-adherent ‘sphere’ of neoplastic progeny in in vitro cultures, can include pre-malignant and malignant neoplastic cells, usually measured by counting spheres that can generate secondary spheres when re-plated
Trackers focused on their health want to ensure that their medical practitioners don’t miss the particulars of their condition; trackers who record their mental states are often trying to find their own way to personal fulfillment amid the seductions of marketing and the errors of common opinion; fitness trackers are trying to tune their training regimes to their own body types and competitive goals, but they are also looking to understand their strengths and weaknesses, to uncover potential they didn’t know they had. Self-tracking, in this way, is not really a tool of optimization but of discovery.
The data becomes a “prosthetic of feeling," something to help us sense our bodies or the world around us.
試誤性地調整(trial and error)的方式往往是這類型量化的風格，因為往往隨者追蹤的時間越多，對於感受到的情緒變化，會更加的精細(nuanced)，此時通常可以利用標籤式來解決此類問題，比如此時同時感受到“開心”、“驚喜”，且另一方面，要保持較開放的態度，避免過早判斷(keep at bay the urge to judge)，相對於醫療診斷的聚焦可能性，產生新覺知類型的自我量化更偏向於形成假說，盡量地發展各種情緒/感知可能的存在或記錄方式。
Self-trackers sometimes talk about “chaining" habits together by timing a new habit like doing sit-ups just after a preexisting habit, like drinking coffee, so that they effectively become one long gesture – a morning routing, say. Pyschologists call this ‘triggering’ the behavior, or creating the reminder for an action in the routine.
定義：when assessing a particular patient, clinicians often weight the similarity of that patient’s symptoms, signs, and risk factors against those of their mental representations of the diagnostic hypotheses being considered.
Elaborate conceptual networks of memorized information or models of disease to aid in arriving at their conclusions. expertise involves an increased ability to connects symptoms, sign, and risk factors to one another in meaningful ways, relate those findings to possible diagnoses, and identify the additional information necessary to confirm the diagnosis.
未來的醫師更有機會且更容易接觸大量的資料，但能不能因此而快速成為專家等級的臨床醫師，還是需要花時間建立自己的“external internalizeddatabase of knowledge and experience not available to novice.“
increased attention is now being paid to understand how best to adjust group-level clinical evidence of treatment harms and benefits to account for the absolute level of risks faced by subgroups and even individual patients, using validated clinical risk scores.